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What is the difference between $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ rays?

Differences between $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ Rays —

• $\alpha$-rays are positively charged helium nuclei (He++), $\beta$-rays are negatively charged electrons and $\gamma$-rays are chargeless photons.
• The charge on $\alpha$-particle is + 2, on $\beta$-particle is -1 and on $\gamma$-particle is zero.
• The mass of $\alpha$ particle is 4, of $\beta$-particle is also zero.
• The velocity of $\alpha$-particle's $\frac{1}{10}$th of the of light, of $\beta$-particle is less than that of light and of $\gamma$-particle is equal to the velocity of light.
• The penetrating power of $\alpha$-particle is less than that of $\beta$-particle and that of $\beta$-particle is less than that of $\gamma$-particle.
• Joining power : $\alpha$ > $\beta$> $\gamma$.
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